THE ANALECTS (Sayings)
1.   Hsien asked what was shameful. The Master said, "When
good government prevails in a state, to be thinking only of
salary; and, when bad government prevails, to be thinking, in the
same way, only of salary; —this is shameful."
"When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and
covetousness are repressed, this may be deemed perfect virtue."
The Master said, "This may be regarded as the achievement
of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed
2.   The Master said, "The scholar who cherishes the love
of comfort is not fit to be deemed a scholar."
3.   The Master said, "When good government prevails in a
state, language may be lofty and bold, and actions the same. When
bad government prevails, the actions may be lofty and bold, but
the language may be with some reserve."
4.   The Master said, "The virtuous will be sure to speak
correctly, but those whose speech is good may not always be
virtuous. Men of principle are sure to be bold, but those who are
bold may not always be men of principle."
5.   Nan-kung Kwo, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said,
"I was skillful at archery, and Ao could move a boat along
upon the land, but neither of them died a natural death. Yu and
Chi personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, and they became
possessors of the kingdom." The Master made no reply; but
when Nan-kung Kwo went out, he said, "A superior man indeed
is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this!"
6.   The Master said, "Superior men, and yet not always
virtuous, there have been, alas! But there never has been a mean
man, and, at the same time, virtuous."
7.   The Master said, "Can there be love which does not
lead to strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty which
does not lead to the instruction of its object?"
8.   The Master said, "In preparing the governmental
notifications, P'i Shan first made the rough draft; Shi-shu
examined and discussed its contents; Tsze-yu, the manager of
foreign intercourse, then polished the style; and, finally, Tsze-ch'an
of Tung-li gave it the proper elegance and finish."
9.   Some one asked about Tsze-ch'an. The Master said, "He
was a kind man."
He asked about Tsze-hsi. The Master said, "That man! That
He asked about Kwan Chung. "For him," said the
Master, "the city of Pien, with three hundred families, was
taken from the chief of the Po family, who did not utter a
murmuring word, though, to the end of his life, he had only
coarse rice to eat."
10.   The Master said, "To be poor without murmuring is
difficult. To be rich without being proud is easy."
11.   The Master said, "Mang Kung-ch'o is more than fit to
be chief officer in the families of Chao and Wei, but he is not
fit to be great officer to either of the states Tang or Hsieh."
12.   Tsze-lu asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. The Master
said, "Suppose a man with the knowledge of Tsang Wu-chung,
the freedom from covetousness of Kung-ch'o, the bravery of Chwang
of Pien, and the varied talents of Zan Ch'iu; add to these the
accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music; —such a one
might be reckoned a COMPLETE man."
He then added, "But what is the necessity for a complete
man of the present day to have all these things? The man, who in
the view of gain, thinks of righteousness; who in the view of
danger is prepared to give up his life; and who does not forget
an old agreement however far back it extends: —such a man may be
reckoned a COMPLETE man."
13.   The Master asked Kung-ming Chia about Kung-shu Wan,
saying, "Is it true that your master speaks not, laughs not,
and takes not?"
Kung-ming Chia replied, "This has arisen from the
reporters going beyond the truth. My master speaks when it is the
time to speak, and so men do not get tired of his speaking. He
laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so men do not get
tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent with
righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking."
The Master said, "So! But is it so with him?"
14.   The Master said, "Tsang Wu-chung, keeping possession
of Fang, asked of the duke of Lu to appoint a successor to him in
his family. Although it may be said that he was not using force
with his sovereign, I believe he was."
15.   The Master said, "The duke Wan of Tsin was crafty and
not upright. The duke Hwan of Ch'i was upright and not crafty."
16.   Tsze-lu said, "The Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu
to be killed, when Shao Hu died, with his master, but Kwan Chung
did not die. May not I say that he was wanting in virtue?"
The Master said, "The Duke Hwan assembled all the princes
together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots: —it was
all through the influence of Kwan Chung. Whose beneficence was
like his? Whose beneficence was like his?"
17.   Tsze-kung said, "Kwan Chung, I apprehend was wanting
in virtue. When the Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be
killed, Kwan Chung was not able to die with him. Moreover, he
became prime minister to Hwan."
The Master said, "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to
the Duke Hwan made him leader of all the princes, and united and
rectified the whole kingdom. Down to the present day, the people
enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Kwan Chung, we should
now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets of our coats
buttoning on the left side.
"Will you require from him the small fidelity of common
men and common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or
ditch, no one knowing anything about them?"
18.   The great officer, Hsien, who had been family minister to
Kung-shu Wan, ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan.
The Master, having heard of it, said, "He deserved to be
considered WAN (the accomplished)."
19.   The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of
the duke Ling of Weil when Ch'i K'ang said, "Since he is of
such a character, how is it he does not lose his state?"
Confucius said, "The Chung-shu Yu has the superintendence
of his guests and of strangers; the litanist, T'o, has the
management of his ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Chia has the
direction of the army and forces: —with such officers as these,
how should he lose his state?"
20.   The Master said, "He who speaks without modesty will
find it difficult to make his words good."
21.   Chan Ch'ang murdered the Duke Chien of Ch'i.
Confucius bathed, went to court and informed the Duke Ai,
saying, "Chan Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that you
will undertake to punish him."
The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families
Confucius retired, and said, "Following in the rear of
the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a
matter, and my prince says, "Inform the chiefs of the three
families of it."
He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not
act. Confucius then said, "Following in the rear of the
great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter."
22.   Tsze-lu asked how a ruler should be served. The Master
said, "Do not impose on him, and, moreover, withstand him to
23.   The Master said, "The progress of the superior man is
upwards; the progress of the mean man is downwards."
24.   The Master said, "In ancient times, men learned with
a view to their own improvement. Nowadays, men learn with a view
to the approbation of others."
25.   Chu Po-yu sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to
Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What,"
said he! "is your master engaged in?" The messenger
replied, "My master is anxious to make his faults few, but
he has not yet succeeded." He then went out, and the Master
said, "A messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!"
26.   The Master said, "He who is not in any particular
office has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its
The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man, in his
thoughts, does not go out of his place."
27.   The Master said, "The superior man is modest in his
speech, but exceeds in his actions."
28.   The Master said, "The way of the superior man is
threefold, but I am not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from
anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free
Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."
29.   Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. The
Master said, "Tsze must have reached a high pitch of
excellence! Now, I have not leisure for this."
30.   The Master said, "I will not be concerned at men's
not knowing me; I will be concerned at my own want of ability."
31.   The Master said, "He who does not anticipate attempts
to deceive him, nor think beforehand of his not being believed,
and yet apprehends these things readily when they occur; —is he
not a man of superior worth?"
32.   Wei-shang Mau said to Confucius, "Ch'iu, how is it
that you keep roosting about? Is it not that you are an
Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a
talker, but I hate obstinacy."
33.   The Master said, "A horse is called a ch'i, not
because of its strength, but because of its other good qualities."
34.   Some one said, "What do you say concerning the
principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?"
The Master said, "With what then will you recompense
"Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness
35.   The Master said, "Alas! there is no one that knows me."
Tsze-kung said, "What do you mean by thus saying—that no
one knows you?" The Master replied, "I do not murmur
against Heaven. I do not grumble against men. My studies lie low,
and my penetration rises high. But there is Heaven;—that knows
36.   The Kung-po Liao, having slandered Tsze-lu to Chi-sun,
Tsze-fu Ching-po informed Confucius of it, saying, "Our
master is certainly being led astray by the Kung-po Liao, but I
have still power enough left to cut Liao off, and expose his
corpse in the market and in the court."
37.   The Master said, "If my principles are to advance, it
is so ordered. If they are to fall to the ground, it is so
ordered. What can the Kung-po Liao do where such ordering is
The Master said, "Some men of worth retire from the world.
Some retire from particular states. Some retire because of
disrespectful looks. Some retire because of contradictory
The Master said, "Those who have done this are seven men."
38.   Tsze-lu happening to pass the night in Shih-man, the
gatekeeper said to him, "Whom do you come from?" Tsze-lu
said, "From Mr. K'ung." "It is he, is it not?"
said the other, "who knows the impracticable nature of the
times and yet will be doing in them."
39.   The Master was playing, one day, on a musical stone in
Weil when a man carrying a straw basket passed door of the house
where Confucius was, and said, "His heart is full who so
beats the musical stone."
A little while after, he added, "How contemptible is the
one-ideaed obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no
notice of, he has simply at once to give over his wish for public
employment. 'Deep water must be crossed with the clothes on;
shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held up.'"
The Master said, "How determined is he in his purpose!
But this is not difficult!"
40.   Tsze-chang said, "What is meant when the Shu says
that Kao-tsung, while observing the usual imperial mourning, was
for three years without speaking?"
The Master said, "Why must Kao-tsung be referred to as an
example of this? The ancients all did so. When the sovereign
died, the officers all attended to their several duties, taking
instructions from the prime minister for three years."
41.   The Master said, "When rulers love to observe the
rules of propriety, the people respond readily to the calls on
them for service."
42.   Tsze-lu asked what constituted the superior man. The
Master said, "The cultivation of himself in reverential
carefulness." "And is this all?" said Tsze-lu.
"He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others,"
was the reply. "And is this all?" again asked Tsze-lu.
The Master said, "He cultivates himself so as to give rest
to all the people. He cultivates himself so as to give rest to
all the people: —even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about
43.   Yuan Zang was squatting on his heels, and so waited the
approach of the Master, who said to him, "In youth not
humble as befits a junior; in manhood, doing nothing worthy of
being handed down; and living on to old age: —this is to be a
pest." With this he hit him on the shank with his staff.
44.   A youth of the village of Ch'ueh was employed by Confucius
to carry the messages between him and his visitors. Some one
asked about him, saying, "I suppose he has made great
The Master said, "I observe that he is fond of occupying
the seat of a full-grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder to
shoulder with his elders. He is not one who is seeking to make
progress in learning. He wishes quickly to become a man."